Consequently, Cavalletti tends not to have a uniform way of reporting data or observations.
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It can be hard to tell sometimes if a reported incident is intended to demonstrate a child's "religious potential" or to show the complexity of a particular that concept. Descriptions may also be about various ages of children, different settings, even from parental reports, making it difficult to establish clear constructs or patterns that might lead to a "theory" of a child's religious potential-something Cavalletti is not likely interested in doing.
Empirical support for such statements as "All works in the atrium are either a passage to prayer or prayer itself" is difficult to obtain. This research-oriented problem is greater in the first book on The Religious Potential than it is in the companion book about children from six to twelve years old Longitudinal studies about Catechesis of the Good Shepherd are needed. Few exist. Even though responses may be multi-faceted and complex, questions such as the following need to be explored:. What long-term impact does Catechesis have on the faith formation of a person who was part of the three levels?
In what ways does the adult faith of a person who experienced nine years of Catechesis differ from one who was part of nine years of Sunday school? Future research of this type has been facilitated by Berryman's efforts to define Cavalletti's terms.
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This will be explained more fully in the next section. Another concern is over the significance of experiences of "awe and wonder," two qualities that are intended to happen within the child in the atrium. This intent may be implicit, but often children, especially in Level I, are encouraged to "wonder" about the story presentation. For many children, this is helpful guidance that results in what appears to be careful reflection.
Some religious educators suggest that true wonder cannot be directed-that leading or guiding reflections diminishes the wonder that should occur in a more spontaneous fashion Hyde, , A catechist might respond that so much of contemporary life has squelched awe and wonder for children that the process needs to be facilitated for children until it those abilities are restored. Some also say that for wonder to be truly genuine, the catechist would have to also be a "co-wonderer.
It is essential to follow the above concern about "awe and wonder" with comments that come directly from the leadership of CGS. According to Lillig , 2 , some of the variations of Catechesis that have emerged since the late s place a much greater emphasis on "wonder" than does Cavalletti's work. These approaches invite the children to "wonder" about every aspect of the story. It would not happen this way in CGS. A catechist who had been carefully trained would formulate "meditation questions.
It is not as explicitly directed as is found in some of the CGS variations. Catechesis of the Good Shepherd may not be a realistic option for large churches, especially non-denominational, evangelical churches that may minister weekly to more than one thousand children. An atrium should be limited to about fifteen children in order for the experience to be effective. Even if multiple sessions of Catechesis would be offered during the week, the logistics of providing for that many children might be overwhelming.
CGS also places a lot of responsibility on the trained catechist to know and watch the child. This demand would challenge the volunteers that typically staff children's ministries in evangelical churches.
See a Problem?
It goes without saying that a higher level of commitment toward training would be required to implement any form of Catechesis in most evangelical churches. On August 23, , two days after her 94th birthday, Sofia entered into the presence of her Good Shepherd. The Church of Jesus Christ has been enriched by her approach to the spiritual nurture of children that is well grounded in her scholarly approach to scripture, theology, liturgy, and church history.
Through her more than 50 years of work, those who minister with children have benefitted by her tireless work with children and her boundless love for them - all making it easier to help children fall in love with the Lord Jesus, their Good Shepherd. Sofia Cavalletti makes a significant contribution to the field of Christian Education through Catechesis of the Good Shepherd-a ministry that flows directly from the work of Maria Montessori.
Cavalletti's observations can help educators and practitioners alike become aware that "God and the child get along well together" , 44 , and that a child may "find the full realization of himself only in the world of the transcendent, a world in which he has shown he moves completely at his ease" These observations have been lost on far too many evangelical Christian educators, an impression noted by scholar David Sims.
He writes that evangelicalism has failed theologically to appropriate findings about the child from the work of Montessori, Cavalletti, and others. In his view, "it is time for evangelicals to join Maria Montessori in her attempt to find the human in the child and Sofia Cavalletti in her bold claim that children should be our point of departure for anthropological inquiry into desire and relationality" , He affirms Cavalletti's position that it is the child that should be the "basis and reference" point for the understanding of persons, a concept that Cavalletti presents in a chapter on "Anthropological Catechesis" , Having said all that, Catechesis is not the only formational experience that a church should offer to children.
There is always room for fun outreach events, summer experiences like VBS, service and mission opportunities, and especially Christian nurture in the home.
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But CGS emphasizes what is missing in most evangelical children's ministries: reflection, contemplation, meditation, awe, wonder, and mystery. When these qualities are present, it affects not only the children but also the adults who are involved. In my own years of theological training and church ministry, I had come to experience a profound spiritual tiredness - the kind that is born of repeated disappointment in the way things are in the Church today. I had become sickened by the factionalism, the lack of love, the political infighting and blatant hypocrisy… It was in this state that I first encountered the Catechesis of the Good Shepherd.
As I studied Sofia's book and visited the atrium, I began to realize that I was being healed on the inside. Seeing the wonder in the children's eyes at hearing the parables of Jesus for the very first time and witnessing the way that their little hearts were so open to God touched me profoundly. It was as if something deep within me stirred again, something that I thought had died long ago.
I began to remember why I came to study theology in the first place - not for prestige, accolades and degrees imparted by humanity but because of a search for a closer relationship with God. The deep faith and spirituality that saturates this program is a powerful reminder that the Holy Spirit is still intimately involved with our Church.
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It is hope for the future Molinari, n. Christian educators will benefit from Berryman's efforts to make Cavalletti's concept of the child's religious potential observable. Berryman notes four aspects: a it is an experience that is spontaneous rather than prompted by an adult; b it is complex, involving feelings, thoughts, and actions; c it is not limited to cultural conditioning; d the experience is deep rather than simply sensory , These "criteria" are significant in light of the traditional evangelical view of needing to do things to or for children in order for the children to have a spiritual experience.
Berryman goes on to describe characteristics of child's growth in this potential.
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They include a deep joy, "mysterious" knowledge or insight that does not come from the adult, awareness of meaning in the environment that is apart from the material itself, and a capacity for deep prayer of praise and gratitude David Hay and Rebecca Nye , researchers in England, have aided educators and research into the spirituality of children by identifying the following qualities: mystery-sensing, awareness-sensing, value-sensing, and relational consciousness. The connection to Catechesis is evident. Cavalletti, through the use of two- or three-dimensional, manipulative materials, provides a tactile experience that draws on a key Montessori principle of educating the senses.
As children work with these materials, according to Brendan Hyde, an Australian scholar, "they are engaging in opportunities to imagine, to transcend, and to make sense of the Scripture story in ways meaningful for them…[Their work] may at times encounter a window to this facet of children's spirituality" , Cavalletti's "theory" of Christian education is a based on a series of "constants" in the responses of the children.
These constants transcend cultures and socio-economic factors.
They are "the response of 'the child' to the Christian message" Cavalletti, , viii. Berryman attempts to define Cavalletti's use of the term "constants" by describing them as relationships-"relationships between the sensitive periods in the child's religious potential for different aspects of objects" and select objects from the Christian tradition Berryman, , For example, Cavalletti has found that constants for the young child are the relationship between the Good Shepherd and the child, as well as a relationship with a lighted candle representing "the Light of the world.
Cavalletti identifies her "theory" of Christian education more completely , Many of the 32 points or principles have subpoints. Christian education benefits from the faithful, patient, thorough work of Sofia Cavalletti. She has learned from the child what is essential to enable that child to have an experience with God that brings a response of awe and wonder.
Her work resists contemporary cultural trends in order to let the child encounter the biblical story in age-appropriate ways. Christian educators and practitioners would do well to consider how her contribution through Catechesis of the Good Shepherd has relevance for ministry with children. We would also benefit fromwhat we might learn from the principles behind her work. Journals of the Catechesis of the Good Shepherd.
Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications. A collection of CGS journals. The first volume spans the years to The second volume spans the years to Individual journals subsequent to are also available for ordering through www. Each journal includes prayers and drawings of children, articles by Cavalletti, and contributions from catechists around the world. The script for each DVD was written by Dr. The videography was done by Douglas R. All the materials for each atrium are pictured and demonstrated.
Pending release, the DVDs may be ordered at www. Cavalletti, S. Discovering the real spiritual life of children. Catechesis of the Good Shepherd Publications.